The open ocean is a tough place for newborn fish. From the moment the larvae hatch from their eggs, their survival depends on finding food, navigating the ocean currents to adult habitats, and all escaping predators. This horrible journey home from the egg has long been a mystery until now.
Arizona State University Global Discovery և Conservation Science Center (GDCS), NOAA Pacific Fisheries Science Center, University of Hawaii’s Muona International team of scientists from Arizona State University have discovered a diverse range of young marine animals. “Superficial torture” in Hawaii. Superficial torture creates a backbone of the nursery environment for more than 100 species of commercially environmentally friendly fish, such as death-dyes, jackets, and algae. The study was published in the journal Today Scientific reports,
Surface fragments on the surface of the ocean are naturally ribbon-like flat water bands that have long been recognized as an important part of the marine landscape. To uncover their secrets, the research team conducted more than 130 plankton nets in the shallow waters and surrounding waters along the coast of Hawaii, exploring the properties of the ocean. In these areas, they searched for insects and other plankton that lived near the surface. They then combined that water study with new satellite-based techniques to map the location of the torture. This technique involved the use of more than 100 shoe box-sized satellites built and operated by GDCS partner Planet to distinguish between surface cramps and regular seawater.
“In an earlier study, our smooth surface mapping suggested a strong coastal connection to ocean habitats. “As a result of our latest study reported here, we have collected satellite-based smooth maps of billions of animals, the organic debris microplastics that make up the pieces,” said Greg Asner, GDCS Director and co-author of the study.
Although the tortoises covered only eight percent of the ocean surface in the 380-square-mile study area, they contained an astonishing 39 percent of the surface caterpillar fish in the study area. more than 25 percent of its zooplankton; 75 percent of floating organic debris, such as feathers. The density of caterpillars of shallow fish outside of West Hawaii averaged more than seven times the density of the surrounding waters.
The study found that the shallows acted as a nursery for at least 112 species of commercially and ecologically important marine caterpillars, as well as many other animals. These include coral reef fish such as celery, fish farming և deer; pelagic predators, such as mahi-mahi; deep-sea fish, such as lanterns; և Various invertebrates such as snails, crayfish: Crabs.
The remarkable variety of fish found in softwoods represents almost 10% of all fish species recorded in Hawaii. The total number of taxa per capita was twice that of the surrounding surface water, շատ many taxa per fish were 10 to 100 times higher in pieces.
“We were shocked to find so many species of caterpillars, even whole families of fish, found only in shallow pieces,” said Aonathan Whitney, lead author of the NOAA Marine Ecology Research. “The fact that the ground pieces hold so many larvae, the resources needed to survive, suggests that they may be needed to replenish adult fish populations,” he added.
In addition to providing nursing habitat for a variety of species, in addition to helping maintain healthy, resilient coral reefs, the pieces provide hotspots for caterpillar predators, bridging coral reef pelagic ecosystems.
“Our discoveries are part of a powerful history that revolves around the role of biological superficial torture in the preservation of coral reefs. “The impeccable biodiversity and biomass of the pieces, combined with their ocean movement along the coast, make up the super-trail species that connect and effectively create interconnected, regional sailing ecosystems,” Asner said.
While torture may seem like a haven for all small marine animals, there is a hidden danger in these oasis – plastic debris. About 95% of the plastic debris in the study area was collected in pieces, compared to 75% of the floating organic debris. Insects can get some shelter from plastic debris, but this comes at the cost of chemical absorption ք accidental absorption.
In some areas, torture may be the predominant surface feature, and new research shows that these obvious phenomena have more ecological value than the eye.
“Our work demonstrates how these oceanic features (behavioral involvement of animals towards them) affect the entire surface community, with consequences for adult recruitment that could be used by humans for fishing, recreation, and other ecosystem services,” Margaret said. McManus. Co-author, Professor ամբ Chair of Oceanography, University of Hawaii, Muյունo. “These discoveries will have a major impact on changing our perception of oceanic features as pelagic nurseries for ocean fish and invertebrates.”
Reference. 2021 On February 4, Scientific reports,
DOI: 10.1038 / s41598-021-81407-0: