The historical NASA Twin Studies The same twins astronaut Scott and Mark Kelly spent time on the site providing new information on health.
Susan Bailey, a professor at Colorado State University, was one of more than 80 scientists at 12 universities who conducted textbook experiments. Mark had been on the ground for about a year when Scott was upstairs. Extensive efforts were coordinated by NASA’s Human Research Program.
Bailey continued her NASA research and has now joined more than 200 investigators from dozens of academic, government, aerospace, and industry teams to publish a package of 30 scientific papers in five cell press journals from November 25, 2020.
Jared Luxon, who recently earned a doctorate in cell and molecular biology from CSU, is the first author of both studies. He is now an information scientist with the United States Department of Agriculture at Fort Collins.
The study – including a very long paper that covers what researchers have learned about the basic characteristics of spacecraft – represents the largest collection of space biology and astronomical health findings.
It is also a milestone in Bailey’s many years of working with NASA, including her leadership role in basic radiation research and her accolades for astronomers and similar research projects. During this time many graduate students in your laboratory received their doctorate as teachers.
What we want to see for future astronauts, including telomer length changes – we have a foundation on which to build now. DNA Injury Response, “Bailey. As we move forward, our goal is to gain a better understanding of basic mechanisms, what is happening in the human body during long flight, and how it differs between people. Not everyone responds in the same way. One of the good things about these studies is that there is a large group of astronauts. ”
Study of chromosome peaks, associated with aging
At the time of Bailey’s twin study, he was an expert in the field of DNA damage caused by telescopes and radiation. In that study, she and her team found that the Scott telomeres in the white blood cells had grown longer in space and then returned to normal.
The telomeres are protective caps on the ends of chromosomes that shorten a person’s life. Significant changes in telomere length mean that a person is at increased risk for aging, such as aging, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.
In the final study, Bailey, Luxon, Lynn Taylor, a senior research associate, and the team studied a team of 10 unrelated astronauts, including CSU researcher Dr. Kjel Lindgren, comparing the results to Kelly’s twins. Although the researchers did not receive flight blood and other samples for all flight attendants, Bailey said they had blood samples for everyone before and after the flight.
The exploration team, which included astronauts, spent about six months at the International Space Station in the expected low-Earth orbit. Despite its protection, scientists have found evidence of DNA damage, which can warn of potential health problems.
New oxide stress discovery
Among the new discoveries, the research team found that chronic oxidative stress during space flight contributed to the ordered telomere prolongation. In addition, astronauts generally have shorter telomeres after the spacecraft. The group also observed individual differences in responses.
To further their understanding, the Bailey team also explored the Twin Mountains. Everest, Extremist on Earth. The undead twins remained at a low altitude, including the Colorado Boulder. Surprisingly, the team found similar evidence of changes in oxidative stress and telemetry lengths.
Christopher Mason, associate professor at Will Cornell Medicine and co-author with Bailey. Everest Hill. He found evidence of a telomeres-independent, regenerative pathway in the repair of telomera, which is known to result in longer telomeres.
Bailey damages the telomeres during chronic oxidative stress.
“Normal blood cells are dying and trying to survive,” he said. They are adapting to their new environment. Some cells stimulate an alternative pathway for their telomeres to continue. It is similar with some tumors. Some cells come out of that process. That is what we are seeing in space. ”
The Luxston method described above – called the Telemers Alternative Extension or Alt – was an unexpected discovery.
“They often see that in cancer or in the developing world,” he said.
Take care of your telomeres
Similar to the conclusion of the twin study, Bailey said the new findings could have implications for future lunar orbits. Mars, Or even as an astronaut. Long-term exploration missions add more time and distance beyond Earth conservation.
Although taller telomeres in space may seem like a good thing, perhaps because they are “the source of youth,” the scientist doubts that they have a certain historical significance.
He said that the age or immortality of DNA-damaged cells, such as inverted chromosomes, is a recipe for cancer risk.
Bailey and her team observed reversals in and around the crew during and after the flight.
“Telomeres really reflect our way of life,” says Bailey. Our choices vary depending on how fast or how old we are. It is important to take care of your telomeres. ”
Bailey is a senior author:
- “Basic Biological Characteristics of Space Flight: Promoting the Field to Enable Deep Space Search” Cell.
- “Temporary telomeres and DNA damage responses in space radiation” Cell reports.
- “Telomere’s long dynamics and DNA damage responses have been linked to long-distance spacecraft. Cell reports.
Bailey and Luxon are also authors of “Haplopep Diversity and the Natural Nature of Human Telomeres.” Genome research.