Genomic study reveals the evolutionary secrets of the Banyan tree and a waste associated with it

Bani tree Ficus macrocarpa produces aerial roots, which give it a unique look. New research reveals genomic changes that allow a tree to take root from its branches. Loan Photo by Gang Wang

Banana fig Ficus microcarp It is known for its aerial roots, which sprout from the branches and eventually reach the ground. The tree has a special relationship with a donkey and is the only insect that can pollinate it.

In a new study, researchers have identified regions of the banana fig genome that promote its unusual aerial roots and enhance its ability to signal donkey pollinators.

The study, published in the journal Mobile:, he identifies the sex-determining region in the adjacent fig tree, Ficus hispida:In contrast F. microcarpa:, which produces aerial roots է bears female flowers on the same tree, F. hispida: produces distinctly male-female trees, has no aerial roots.

Understanding evolutionary history Ficus: Species և Crushing them are possible because their ability to produce large fruits in different habitats becomes a cornerstone for them in tropical forests. With Jin in Chen of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Figs are known to preserve at least 1,200 species of birds and mammals. Figs were among the earliest domesticated crops, appearing as sacred symbols in Hinduism, Buddhism, and other sacred traditions.

Ray Ming

Ray Ming, a professor of plant biology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, led a genealogical study of the banana tree, Ficus macrocarpa, and its key pollinator, the snake. The loan. Photo by L. By Brian Stauffer

The relationship between fig and bumblebees is also a fascinating scientific challenge. The shapes and sizes of Beck’s body correspond exactly to the figs, each type of fig produces a unique perfume to pollinate its own bumblebee.

To better understand these evolutionary developments, Ming and his colleagues analyzed the genomes of two species of fig tree, such as a beech that pollinates a banana tree.

“When we sorted the tree genomes, we found more fragmented copies in the banana tree genome than F. hispida:“Figs without aerial roots,” said Ming. “These duplicate regions make up about 27% of the genome.”

The duplicates increased the number of genes involved in the synthesis and transport of auxins, a class of hormones that promote plant growth. The duplicated areas contained genes involved in plant immunity, nutrition, and the production of volatile organic compounds that alert pollinators.

“Oxine levels in aerial roots are five times higher than in those with or without aerial roots,” said Ming. High levels of auxin appear to stimulate the production of aerial roots. Duplicate regions include genes that encode a light receptor that accelerates the production of oxine.

When they studied the donkey’s genome and compared it to other adjacent donkeys, the researchers found that bumblebees conserved և olfactory receptor genes that detect the same aromatic compounds that figs produce. The researchers report that these genomic signatures are a signal of mutation between figs and reeds.

Ming and his colleagues have discovered a specific gene on the Y chromosome, which is expressed only in male plants. F. hispida: այլ Three other species of figs that produce separate male-female plants.

“This gene was replicated in dual genomes, giving plants three copies of the gene. But: Ficus: “Species that have male-female flowers on one plant together have only one copy of this gene,” said Ming. “This suggests that this gene is a dominant factor influencing sex determination.”

Reference. “Yan intan hang angi, Gang Wang, Shengchen Zangi, Shuai Chen, Yibin Wang, Ping Wen, Xiaokai Mai, Yan Shi, Rui i, Yan Yang” The images of the genome of the Bani tree և pollinating donkey give the idea of ​​developing a fig mixture. ” Henyanyan Liao, ing in Lin, is ishan Lin, Suminging Su, Suekun Chen, Sindan Su, Fang Deng, Lihua ha ao, Yi-Lun Li, Rong Wang, Xiao-Yong Chen, Yan-Rong Lin, isen hang T, Haiba in Ch և Ray Ming, 2020 October 8, Mobile:,
DOI: 10.1016 / j.cell.2020.09.043:

Ming K. Carl R. It is a subsidiary of the Wuze Institute of Genomic Biology. F. Fujian University of Agriculture and Forestry, the National Science Foundation, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China supported this study.

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