Future astronauts must land on Mars

NASA astronauts on Mars. Credit: NASA

brand new NASA Until recently, a sheet of paper provided a very detailed map near the surface of the Red Planet.

So they want to build Mars Where to start? It will be located near the most accessible water, as in any other human settlement. Not only is water vital to life-sustaining supplies, but it is also used to produce everything from agriculture to rocket extensions.

Drawing all that water to Mars is expensive and dangerous. That’s why NASA In 2015, it involved scientists and engineers to identify Marsian icebergs that could be accessed by astronauts on the planet. But of course, water has great scientific significance: if current micro-organisms are found on Mars, these could also be nearby water sources.

A new study is emerging Nature astronomy Includes a comprehensive map of where ice is most abundant and at least occurring in the Northern Hemisphere. The paper is a project of Groundwater Ice Map, or SWIM, combining 20 years of data from NASA Mars Odyssey, the Mars Resenance Orbiter and the now inactive Mars Global Survey. SWIM’s efforts are led by the Planetary Science Institute in Tucson, Arizona, and run by NASA Jet Proposal Laboratory in Southern California.

Dodo Goldilox Snow

NASA Phoenix Mars Lander shows the previously unpainted canal called “Dodo-Golddilox”. Within four days, the ice had evaporated in a process similar to evaporation. Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech / University of Arizona / Texas A&M University

“The next boundary for Mars is for humans to search for signs of microorganisms,” said Richard Davis, who led NASA’s efforts to send humans to the Red Planet. We understand that we need to develop new groundwater maps to improve our knowledge of where that ice is for scientific discovery and what local astronauts rely on.

Recently, NASA plans to hold a multidisciplinary workshop to evaluate potential human settlements on Mars based on this research and other scientific and engineering standards. This map project could also indicate that future orbit suppliers will send NASA to the Red Planet.

Dodo Goldilox Ice List

In the lower left corner of the image, a set of knots appears. The tumors are missing in the correct image. Credit: NPL / JPL-Caltech University of Arizona, Texas A&M University

NASA recently announced the signing of a joint statement with three international space agencies to explore the concept of a global Mars Ice Map mission. The statement calls for the establishment of a joint concept team to assess the mission capacity of the agencies as well as the partnership opportunities between NASA, Agenzia Spasia Italy (Italian Space Agency), Canada Space Agency and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

Location, location, location

Ask Mars scientists and engineers where the most accessible groundwater is, and most will point to the location below the Mars pole in the Northern Hemisphere. On earth, this territory is found in Canada and Europe. It includes the archipelago of Arcadia on Mars and the glacier valleys of Daditulus Mensei.

Such regions literally indicate the middle ground where they get the most poles and the most sunlight and heat. The northern hemisphere also provides a comfortable place to rest. The lower the altitude, the more likely it is that a spacecraft will be able to slow down by using a collision from the Martian atmosphere. This is especially important for heavy-duty spacecraft, as Mars’ atmosphere is about 1% of the Earth’s surface and provides little resistance to the oncoming spacecraft.

“Finally, NASA commissioned the SWIM project to consider how far it could go to find groundwater,” said Sidney Do, director of the Mars Water Map Project. J.L.L.. Imagine for a second you were transposed into the karmic driven world of Earl. This information allows us to draw that line with a fine pen rather than a thick marker and focus on parts of that line that are closest to the equator. ”

Hot Crescent exposes the ice buried on Mars

This image, obtained from the NASA Mars Renaissance Orbiter, is a discovery of the impact of the meteorological excavations on Mars, which were hidden underground. Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech / Univ. Arizona

It is not easy to know that a floor of snow is hiding. None of the instruments used in the study were designed to measure ice directly, said Gareth Morgan of the Institute of Planetary Sciences, co-author of the SWIM-project and author of the paper. Instead, each orbital device examines different physical properties – high hydrogen levels, high radar speeds and the rate at which temperatures change on a surface – can indicate the presence of ice.

“Despite 20 years of data and impressive tools, it is difficult to integrate these data sets,” Morgan said. That is why we have evaluated the consistency of the ice sign by showing the location of several data sets. If all five sets of data point to Snow-Bingo. ”

If so, the team will try to find out how consistent the signs were and what other materials might be involved. Different data sets are not always compatible, but they are often mutually supportive. For example, existing radars look deep underground but do not see 30 to 50 feet (10 to 15 meters) above the ground; In the first cycle, the nitrogen spectrometry measured in the upper surface of the earth is not lower than the hydrogen. Radar and other remote sensing indicators provide direct evidence to meet the iceberg, as high-resolution photographs show the recent snowstorms.

Next steps

As astronomers roll over these new groundwater maps, NASA is anticipating what the next steps will be. For one thing, blind spots in the current data could be solved by sending a new radar mission to areas of high demand for human missions: Mars in the lower and upper layers of the Earth.

Future radar-based missions targeting nearby floors could also tell scientists more about the composition of rock, dust, and other materials on the surface. A variety of materials require special equipment and approaches to dig, dig, and reach water-ice storage, especially in the heavy-duty area of ​​Martínez.

Mapping in the 2020s could help bring human missions to Mars in the early 2030s. Before that, however, there was a heated debate on Mars ‘first human settlement: astronauts’ ability to conserve natural water resources, and the discovery of tremendous discoveries about evolution. The potential for rocky planets, habitats, and extraterrestrial life.

Reference: “Survival of Groundwater-Ice Resources in Mars North-Central” by GA Morgan, NE Putzig, MR Perry, HG Sizemore, AM Bramson, EI Petersen, ZM Bain, DMH Baker, M. Mastrogiuseppe, RH Hoover, IB Smith, A. Patre, CM Dunda and B. Campbell, 8 February 2021; Nature astronomy.
Doy: 10.1038 / s41550-020-01290-z

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