A magnificent Mars relay network that prevents NASA from contacting the Earth during or after Earth

A tightly drawn dance between them NASADeep space network and Mars They connect the orbit of the agency to the ground where it orbits.

NASA’s Mars 2020 Endurance Rover will not be alone today (February 18, 2021) when it touches the ingenious Mars helicopter. From the orbit of the cup, two robot friends play a special role in the preparation of the mission, from the moment she enters the atmosphere to the moment she first makes her way to the floor.

NASA’s Mars Renaissance Orbit (MRO) and Mars’s Atmosphere and Volume Evoltioen (Maven) orbit are part of a Mars transmission network. .

Mars transmission network

The five spacecraft currently orbiting the Red Planet are part of the Mars Transmitting Network to transmit orders from Earth to Earth and receive scientific information from them. From right to left: NASA’s Mars Renaissance Orbit (MRO), Mars Atmosferic and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN), Mars Odyssey, and ESA’s Mars Express and Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO). Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech, ESA

While some orders and telemetry Can Send it directly to Earth and to Earth, for the most part, the vast amount of scientific information collected by Rovers and landlords will not last long. Most of the information that travels to Earth must first be sent up to Mars orbit, and then transmit tens of millions of miles to Earth via radio antennas, NASA’s prestigious Dip Space Network (DNA).

Bradford Arnold, DSN project manager at NASA’s Jet Proposition Laboratory in Southern California, said: ” Since the launch of the Mars Global Survey (MSS) in 1997, there has been a steady stream of relay radios and antennas that provide the most efficient communication between the Earth and Earth. Although this choreography is relatively limited to the resources available at the site, it is still very difficult to coordinate all the links when a visitor arrives.

This dance proves that the world can see perseverance, genealogy, and rest – the shocking events that begin at the end of Rover’s ship.

Deep Space Network Madrid Ground Station

The Deep Space Network has land stations in Madrid, Spain, Goldston (Southern California) and Canberra (Australia). The Madrid radio antennas pictured here guide the receiver’s telemetry network as it steadily enters, descends and descends. Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech

Above the horizon

As endurance enters the Martínez area of ​​the defensive airway, the rover rotates between several ship antennas to stay in contact with the ground. Some of these antennas use powerful X-band broadcasts that can send small amounts of data directly to the DSN. Others use very high frequency (or UHF) to communicate with MRO and MAVEN.

Administered by J.L.L. For NASA’s Space Communication and Exploration Program (SCAN), DNA comprises a number of parabolic radio antennas on land stations outside Southern California, Spain, Madrid, and Canberra, Australia. This configuration allows controllers to communicate with the solar system at all times during the daily rotation of the sun. During a period of rest, Madrid’s antennas take the lead and receive training on Mars. Goldston Campus, near Barsto, California, also serves as a backup.

Since the advent of NASA’s Mars Exploration Rovers in 2004, scientific data has been available from MGGS and then NASA’s oldest Odyssey Orbit. Since 2001, Mars has been working for DSN.

Because the last two minutes of endurance seeding and landing are beyond the horizon of the Earth’s view, “straight-to-earth” X-band connections are not possible and the router connects to the Earth via MRO and MAVEN only on Earth.

Since 2006, the MRO has been used in orbit as a science mission and as a communication link for ground missions. But he has made progress in preparing for the end.

Last year, MRO spacecraft software and UHF radio were updated to speed up the recovery of data collected during ADL. The MRO holds the transmitted telemetry and uses 3 meters [10-foot] By J.L.P. Roy Gladen, manager of the Mars Relay Network, said that food should be delivered to Earth immediately. Mars is blocking our sight from the earth, but we call this the “bent tube.”

The first word is from Jazero

When the MRO transmits the station in real time, the engineers in charge of the mission hope to confirm the station and receive the first image – after 12:55 pm PST (3:55 pm EST). Since the sign was to travel from Mars to Earth, the spacecraft landed (known as the “space shuttle time”) 11 minutes and 22 seconds earlier.

Later, in the PSA (around 7:27 pm), Odyssey flew to the airport and contacted Rover to check on his health. The next relay session will be held at the ESA (European Aerospace Agency) Tracy Gas Orbiter (Tigo) at 6:36 pm PST (9:36 pm EST), where a rover that checks endurance and transmits any images has been removed from the landing site. .

MAVEN also captures the entire landing of a broad spectrum of information and sends the information to Earth several hours after landing. This information can be used to fill in any telemetry (engineering information) that was lost during the first transmission of the ADL and provide other parameters of the event.

This system of friendship helps to erase some information during the historic landing of the extremist in Jazero Crete, and to ensure the health and correctness of the rover.

Scientific works

Of course, connections do not stop after downloading. That’s when the complex task of sending commands to perseverance and accepting Rover’s vast scientific data begins.

During the mission, Rover will have all the supporters in the Mars Relay network – including NASA Emro, Maven, Odyssey and Isa Tigo, who have played a key role in the network for the past few years. Even ESA Mars Express orbit is available for emergency communications if needed. When NASA orbits communicate only with DNA, the EAA. Outer is also connected via the European Space Agency and ground stations in Russia.

Although the Mars transit network is expanding to include more spacecraft and more international partners, the complexity is growing as each new surface mission changes with each orbit.

“Curiosity and Insight are close to each other on Mars, they are seen at the same time as they fly. Endurance cannot be seen in MRO, TGO and Odyssey at the same time, so the extreme landscape is far away, but sometimes MAVEN with a large orbit can see all three vehicles at the same time, ”Gladen added. Since we use the same frequencies when we talk to all three, we need to plan carefully when each orbate speaks to each landlord. We have been good at this over the past 18 years with the arrival and departure of Rovers and landlords, including the ESA, and we are pleased to see that the Mars Relay Network is preparing a new portfolio as it restores a huge database.

Finally, these communications will enable us to see (and hear the first sounds) enduring images of the Earth and Mars, and give scientists a better understanding of the ancient geology of the Red Planet and its astronomical potential.

More about endurance

The key objective of the mission of perseverance on Mars is astrology, including the search for signs of ancient life. Rover identifies the planet’s geology and past climate, paves the way for human exploration of the Red Planet, and will be the first mission to collect and store the Martyrs’ rock and regolith.

The following missions are currently being considered by NASA in collaboration with ESA to send these spacecraft to Mars and return them to Earth for in-depth analysis.

The Mars 2020 mission, which includes missions such as the moon, is part of a larger NASA initiative. Linn Accused of returning astronauts to the moon in 2024, NASA will launch a lunar orbit around humans in 2028 with NASA’s Artemis lunar exploration plans.

JPL, a persistent rover operator operated by Caltec for NASA in Pasadena, California.

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